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    Maven Web應用

     

     

    本章節我們將學習如何使用版本控制系統 Maven 來管理一個基于 web 的項目,如何創建、構建、部署已經運行一個 web 應用。

     

    創建 Web 應用

     

    我們可以使用 maven-archetype-webapp 插件來創建一個簡單的 Java web 應用。

     

    打開命令控制臺,進入到 C:\MVN 文件夾,然后執行以下的 mvn 命令:

     

    C:\MVN>mvn archetype:generate -DgroupId=com.companyname.automobile -DartifactId=trucks -DarchetypeArtifactId=maven-archetype-webapp  -DinteractiveMode=false

     

    執行完后 Maven 將開始處理,并且創建完整的于Java Web 項目的目錄結構。

     

    [INFO] Scanning for projects...
    [INFO] Searching repository for plugin with prefix: 'archetype'.
    [INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO] Building Maven Default Project
    [INFO]    task-segment: [archetype:generate] (aggregator-style)
    [INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO] Preparing archetype:generate
    [INFO] No goals needed for project - skipping
    [INFO] [archetype:generate {execution: default-cli}]
    [INFO] Generating project in Batch mode
    [INFO] --------------------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO] Using following parameters for creating project 
    from Old (1.x) Archetype: maven-archetype-webapp:1.0
    [INFO] --------------------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO] Parameter: groupId, Value: com.companyname.automobile
    [INFO] Parameter: packageName, Value: com.companyname.automobile
    [INFO] Parameter: package, Value: com.companyname.automobile
    [INFO] Parameter: artifactId, Value: trucks
    [INFO] Parameter: basedir, Value: C:\MVN
    [INFO] Parameter: version, Value: 1.0-SNAPSHOT
    [INFO] project created from Old (1.x) Archetype in dir: C:\MVN\trucks
    [INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO] BUILD SUCCESSFUL
    [INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO] Total time: 16 seconds
    [INFO] Finished at: Tue Jul 17 11:00:00 IST 2012
    [INFO] Final Memory: 20M/89M
    [INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    執行完后,我們可以在 C:/MVN 文件夾下看到 trucks 項目,查看項目的目錄結構:

     

     

    Maven 目錄結構是標準的,各個目錄作用如下表所示:

     

    文件夾結構

    描述

    trucks

    包含 src 文件夾和 pom.xml 文件。

    src/main/webapp

    包含 index.jsp 文件和 WEB-INF 文件夾.

    src/main/webapp/WEB-INF

    包含 web.xml 文件

    src/main/resources

    包含圖片、properties資源文件。

     

    pom.xml 文件代碼如下:

     

    <project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" 
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 
       http://maven.apache.org/maven-v4_0_0.xsd">
       <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
       <groupId>com.companyname.automobile</groupId>
       <artifactId>trucks</artifactId>
       <packaging>war</packaging>
       <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
       <name>trucks Maven Webapp</name>
       <url>http://maven.apache.org</url>
       <dependencies>
          <dependency>
             <groupId>junit</groupId>
             <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
             <version>3.8.1</version>
             <scope>test</scope>
          </dependency>
       </dependencies>
       <build>
          <finalName>trucks</finalName>
       </build>
    </project>

     

    接下來我們打開 C:\ > MVN > trucks > src > main > webapp > 文件夾,可以看到一個已經創建好的 index.jsp 文件,代碼如下:

     

    <html>
       <body>
          <h2>Hello World!</h2>
       </body>
    </html>

     

     

    構建 Web 應用

     

    打開命令控制臺,進入 C:\MVN\trucks 目錄,然后執行下面的以下 mvn 命令:

     

    C:\MVN\trucks>mvn clean package

     

    Maven 將開始構建項目:

     

    [INFO] Scanning for projects...
    [INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO] Building trucks Maven Webapp
    [INFO]    task-segment: [clean, package]
    [INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO] [clean:clean {execution: default-clean}]
    [INFO] [resources:resources {execution: default-resources}]
    [WARNING] Using platform encoding (Cp1252 actually) to 
    copy filtered resources,i.e. build is platform dependent!
    [INFO] Copying 0 resource
    [INFO] [compiler:compile {execution: default-compile}]
    [INFO] No sources to compile
    [INFO] [resources:testResources {execution: default-testResources}]
    [WARNING] Using platform encoding (Cp1252 actually) to 
    copy filtered resources,i.e. build is platform dependent!
    [INFO] skip non existing resourceDirectory 
    C:\MVN\trucks\src\test\resources
    [INFO] [compiler:testCompile {execution: default-testCompile}]
    [INFO] No sources to compile
    [INFO] [surefire:test {execution: default-test}]
    [INFO] No tests to run.
    [INFO] [war:war {execution: default-war}]
    [INFO] Packaging webapp
    [INFO] Assembling webapp[trucks] in [C:\MVN\trucks\target\trucks]
    [INFO] Processing war project
    [INFO] Copying webapp resources[C:\MVN\trucks\src\main\webapp]
    [INFO] Webapp assembled in[77 msecs]
    [INFO] Building war: C:\MVN\trucks\target\trucks.war
    [INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO] BUILD SUCCESSFUL
    [INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------
    [INFO] Total time: 3 seconds
    [INFO] Finished at: Tue Jul 17 11:22:45 IST 2012
    [INFO] Final Memory: 11M/85M
    [INFO] -------------------------------------------------------------------

     

    部署 Web 應用

     

    打開 C:\ < MVN < trucks < target < 文件夾,找到 trucks.war 文件,并復制到你的 web 服務器的 web 應用目錄,然后重啟 web 服務器。

     

    測試 Web 應用

     

    訪問以下 URL 運行 web 應用:

     

    http://:/trucks/index.jsp

     

    驗證結果:

     

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